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API Definitions News

These are the news items I've curated in my monitoring of the API space that have some relevance to the API definition conversation and I wanted to include in my research. I'm using all of these links to better understand how the space is defining not just their APIs, but their schema, and other moving parts of their API operations.

The Open Service Broker Api


Api Environment Portabiity


Three New Api Industry Groups On The Horizon


Healthcare Api Interoperability At Hl7 Fhir Dev Days In Amsterdam


Github Helping Set The Bar For Your Api Community Code Standards


Zooming Out To The 100k Level Then Back To Api Sea Level With Openapi And Apis Dot Json


Proprietary Views Of Your Taxonomy

I’ve been investing a lot more energy into open data and APIs involved with city government, something I’ve dabbled in as long as I’ve been doing API Evangelist, but is something I’ve ratcheted up pretty significantly over the last couple of years. As part of this work, I’ve increasingly come across some pretty proprietary stances when it comes to data that is part of city operations–this stuff has been seen as gold, long before Silicon Valley came along, with long lines of folks looking to lock it up and control it.

Helping civic data stakeholders separate the licensing layers around their open data and APIs is something I do as the API Evangelist. Another layer I will be adding to this discussion is around taxonomy. How city data folks are categorizing, organizing, and classifying the valuable data needed to make our cities work. I’ve been coming across more vendors in the city open data world who feel their taxonomy is their secret sauce and falls under intellectual property protection. I don’t have any wisdom regarding why this is a bad idea, but I will keep writing about as part of my wider API licensing work to help flesh out my ideas, and create a more coherent and precise argument.

I understand that some companies put a lot of work into taxonomies, and the description behind how they organize things, but like API definitions and schema, these are aspects of your open data and API operations you want to be a widely understood, shared, and reusable knowledge within your systems, as well as the 3rd party integration of your partners and customers. Making your taxonomy proprietary isn’t going to help your brand, or get you ahead in the game. I recommend focusing on other aspects of the value you bring to the table and keep your taxonomy as openly licensed as you possibly can, encouraging adoption by others. I’ll work on a more robust argument as I work through a variety of projects that will potentially be hurt by the proprietary views on taxonomy I’m seeing.


KDL: A Graphical Notation for Kubernetes API Objects

I am learning about the Kubernetes Deployment Language (KDL) today, trying to understand their approach to defining their notion of Kubernetes API objects. It feels like an interesting evolution in how we define our infrastructure, and begin standardizing the API layer for it so that we can orchestrate as we need.

They are standardizing the Kubernetes API objects into the following buckets:

Cluster - The orchestration level of things. Compute - The individual compute level. Networking - The networking layer of it all. Storage - Storage behind our APIs.

This has elements of my API lifecycle research, as well as a containerized, clustered, BaaS 2.0 in my view. Standardizing how we define and describe the essential layers of our API and application infrastructure. I could also see standardizing the testing, monitoring, performance, security, and other critical aspects of doing this at scale.

I’m also fascinated at how fast YAML has become the default orchestration template language for folks in the cloud containerization space. I’ll add KDL to my API definition and container research and keep an eye on what they are up to, and keep an eye out for other approaches to standardizing the API layer for deploying, managing, and scaling our increasingly containerized API infrastructure.


Examples Of The OpenAPI Specification Used For Government APIs

I was answering some questions for my partners over at DreamFactory when it comes to APIs in government, and one of the questions they asked was about some examples of the OpenAPI specification being used in government. To help out, I started going through my list of government API looking for any examples in the wild–here is what I found:

I am sure there are more OpenAPI in use across government, but this is what I could find in a five-minute search of my API database. It provides us with seven quality examples of OpenAPI being used for documenting government APIs. I don’t see the OpenAPI used for much beyond documentation, but it is still a good start.

If you know of any government APIs that use OpenAPI feel free to let me know. I’d love to keep adding examples to my research so I can pull up quickly when I am asked questions like this in the future, and be able to highlight best practices for API operations in city, county, state, and federal levels of government.


Patent US 8997069: API Descriptions

There are so many API patents out there, I’m going to have to start posting one a day just to keep up. Lucky for you I begin to get really depressed by all the API patents I lose interest in reading them and begin to work harder looking for positive examples of API in the world, but until then here is today’s depressing as fuck API patent.

Title: API descriptions Number: US 8997069 Owner: Microsoft Technology Licensing, LLC Abstract: API description techniques are described for consumption by dynamically-typed languages. In one or more implementations, machine-readable data is parsed to locate descriptions of one or more application programming interfaces (APIs). The descriptions of the one or more application programming interfaces are projected into an alternate form that is different than a form of the machine-readable data.

I don’t mean to be a complete dick here, but why would you think this is a good idea? I get that companies want their employees to develop a patent portfolio, but this one is patenting an essential ingredient that makes APIs work. If you enforce this patent it will be worthless because this whole API thing won’t work, and if you don’t enforce it, it will be worthless because it does nothing–money well spent on the filing fee.

I just need to file my patent on patenting APIs and end all of this nonsense. I know y’all think I’m crazy for my beliefs that APIs shouldn’t be patented, but every time I dive into my patent research I can’t help but think y’all are the crazy ones, and I’m actually sane. I just do not understand how this patent is going to help anyone and represents any of the value that APIs and even a patent can bring to the table.


APIs Are How Our Digital Selves are Learning To Speak With Each Other

I know this will sound funny to many folks, but when I see APIs, I see language and communication, and humans learning to speak with each other in this new digital world we are creating for ourselves. My friend Erik Wilde (@dret) tweeted a reminder for me that APIs are indeed a language.

Every second on our laptops and mobile phone we are communicating with many different companies and individuals. With each wall post, Tweet, photo push, or video stream we are communicating with our friends, family, and the public. Each of these interactions is being defined and facilitated using an API. An API call just for saying something in text, in an image, or video. API is the digital language we use to communicate online and via our mobile devices.

Uber geeks like me spend their days trying to map out and understand these direct interactions, as well as the growing number of indirect interactions. For every direct communication, there are usually numerous other indirect communications with advertisers, platform providers, or maybe even law enforcement, researchers, or anyone else with access to the communication channels. We aren’t just learning to directly communicate, we are also being conditioned to participate indirectly in conversations we can’t see–unless you are tuned into the bigger picture of the API economy.

When we post that photo, companies are whispering about what is in the photo, where it was taken, and what meaning it has. When we share that news link of Facebook, companies have a discussion about the truthfulness and impact of the link, maybe the psychological profile behind the link and where we fit into their psychological profile database. In some scenarios, they are talking directly about us personally like we are sitting in the room, other times they are talking about us like we are just a number in a larger demographic pool.

In alignment with the real world, the majority of these conversations being held between men, behind closed doors. Publicly the conversations are usually directed by people with a bullhorn, talking over others, as well as whispering behind, and around people while they completely unaware that these conversations about them are even occurring. The average person is completely unaware these conversations are happening. They can’t hear the whispering, or just do not speak the language that is being used around them, about them, each moment of each day.

Those of us in the know are scrambling to understand, control, and direct the conversations that are occuring. There is a lot of money to be made when you are part of these conversations. Or at least have a whole bunch of people on your platform to have a conversation about, or around. People don’t realize that for every direct conversation you have online, there are probably 20 conversations going on about this conversation. What will they buy next? Who do they know? What is in that photo they just shared? Is this related post interesting to them? API-driven echoes of conversation upon conversations into infinity.

Sometimes I feel like Dr. Xavier from the X-men in that vault room connected to the machine when I am on the Internet studying APIs. I’m seeing millions of conversations going on–it is deafening. I don’t just see or hear the direct conversations, I hear the deafening sounds of advertisers, hackers, researchers, police, government, and everyone having a conversation around us. Many folks feel like the average person shouldn’t be included in the conversation–they do not have the interest or awareness to even engage. To me, it just feels like a new secretive world augmenting our physical worlds, where our digital selves are learning to speak with each other. What troubles me though, is that not everyone is actually engaged in the conversations they are included in, and are often asleep or sedated while their personal digital self is being manipulated, exploited, and p0wn3d.


The Github Repo Stripe Uses To Manage Their OpenAPI

I’m beating a drum every time I find a company managing their OpenAPI on Github, like we would the other code elements of our API operations. Today’s drumbeat comes from my friend Nicolas Grenié (@picsoung), who posted Stripe’s Github repository for their OpenAPI in our Slack channel for the super cool API Evangelists in the sector. ;-)

Along with the New York Times, Box, and other API providers, Stripe has a dedicated Github repo for managing their OpenAPI definition. This opens up the Stripe API for easily loading in client tools like Restlet Client, and Postman, as we as generating code samples and SDKs using services like APIMATIC. Most importantly, it allows for developers to easily understand the surface area of the Stripe API, in a way that is machine-readable, and portable.

It makes me happy to see leading API providers manage their own OpenAPI using Github like this. The API sector will be able to reach new heights when every single API provider manages their API definitions like this. I know, I know hypermedia folks–everyone should just do hypermedia. Yes, they should. However, we need some initial steps to occur before that is possible, and API providers being able to effectively communicate their API surface area to API consumers in a way that scales and can be used across the API lifecycle is an important part of this evolution. With each OpenAPI I find like this, I get more optimistic that we are getting closer to the future that RESTafarians and hypermedia folks envision–providers are doing the hard work of thinking about the definitions used in their APIs in the context of the entire API lifecycle, and the API consumers who exist along the way.


Managing Your Postman Collection Using Github

I have been encouraging API providers to publish and manage their API definitions using Github similar to how you’d manage any code. Companies like Box and NY Times are publishing their OpenAPI definitions to a single repository, allowing partners and API consumers to pull the latest version of the API definition and use throughout the API lifecycle.

I stumbled across another example of managing your API definitions using Github, but this time it is the management of your Postman Collections in a Github repo from API management provider Apigee (now Google). The Postman Collection provides a complete description of the Apigee API management surface area, allowing API providers to easily automate or orchestrate their API operations using Apigee.

The Github repository providers a complete Postman Collection, along with instructions on how to load, as well as a Run in Postman button allowing any consumer to instantly load the entire surface area of the Apigee API management solution into their Postman Client. I am a big fan of managing your Postman Collections, as well as OpenAPI definitions in this way, managing the definitions for your API similar to how you manage your code, but also making available for forking, checking out, and integration of these machine-readable definitions anywhere across the API lifecycle.


Adding Three APIMATIC OpenAPI Extensions To The OpenAPI Toolbox

I’ve added three OpenAPI extensions from APIMATIC to my OpenAPI Toolbox, adding to the number of extensions I’m tracking on that service providers and tooling developers are using as part of their API solutions. APIMATIC provides SDK code generation services, so their OpenAPI extensions are all about customizing how you deploy code as part of the integration process.

These are the three OpenAPI extensions I am adding from them:

  • x-codegen-settings - These settings are globally applicable to all operations and schema definitions.
  • x-operation-settings - These settings can be specified inside an "operation" object.
  • x-additional-headers - These headers are in addition to any headers required for authentication or defined as parameters.

If you have ever used APIMATIC you know that you can do a lot more than just “SDK generation”, which often has a bad reputation. APIMATIC provides some interesting ways you can use OpenAPI to dial in your SDK, script, and code generation as part of any continuous integration lifecycle.

Providing another example of how you don’t have to live within the constraints of the current OpenAPI spec. Anyone can augment, and extend the current specification to meet your unique needs. Then who knows, maybe it will become useful enough, and something that might eventually be added to the core specification. Which is part of the reason I’m aggregating these specifications, and including them in the OpenAPI Toolbox.


Every API Should Begin With A Github Repository

I’m working on my API definition and design strategy for my human services API work, and as I was doing this Box went all in on Opening, adding to the number of API providers I track on who not just have an OpenAPI but they also use Github as the core management for their API definition.

Part of my API definition and design advice for human service API providers, and the vendors who sell software to them is that they have an OpenAPI and JSON schema defined for their API, and share this either publicly or privately using a Github repository. When I evaluate a new vendor or service provider as part of the Human Services Data API (HSDA) specification I’m beginning to require that they share their API definition and schema using Github–if you don’t have one, I’ll create it for you. Having a machine-readable definition of the surface area of an API, and the underlying schema in a Github repo I can checkout, commit to, and access via an API is essential.

Every API should begin with a Github repository in my opinion, where you can share the API definition, documentation, schema, and have a conversation around these machine readable docs using Github issues. Approaching your API in this way doesn’t just make it easier to find when it comes to API discovery, but it also makes your API contract available at all steps of the API design lifecycle, from design to deprecation.


Craft Your API Design Guide So You Can Move To Other Areas of The Lifecycle

I am working on an API definition and design guide for my human services API work, helping establish a framework for approaching API design as part of the human services data and API specification, but also for implementers to follow in their own individual deployments. Every time I work on the subject of API design, I’m reminded of how far behind the API sector is when it comes to standardizing what it is we do.

Every month or so I see a new company publicly share their API design guide. When they do my friend Arnaud always adds to his API Stylebook, adding it to the wealth of information available in his work. I’m happy to see each API design guide release, but in reality, ALL API providers should have an API design guide, and they should also be open to publishing it publicly, showing their consumers they have their act together, and sharing with the wider API community the best practices in play.

The lack of companies sharing their API design practices and their API definitions is why we have such a deficiency when it comes to common API patterns in use. It is why we have so many variations of web APIs, as well as the underlying schema. We have an API industry because early practitioners like SalesForce, Amazon, eBay, Flickr, Delicious, Twitter, Youtube, and others were open with their API operations. People emulate what they see and know. Each wave of the API sector depends on the previous wave sharing what they do publicly–it is how this all works.

To demonstrate even further about how deficient we are, I do not find companies sharing their guides for API deployment, management, testing, monitoring, clients, and other stops along the API lifecycle. I’m glad we are seeing an uptick in the number of API design guides, but we need this practice to spread to every other stop. We need successful providers to share how they deploy their APIs, and when any company hires a new developer, you should ALWAYS be given a standard guide for deploying, managing, testing, as well as designing APIs.

It’s not rocket science, and honestly, it’s not even technical. It just means pausing for a moment, thinking about how we approach each stop in the API lifecycle, writing up an overview, publishing, and sharing it with API stakeholders, and even the wider API community. Every company doing APIs in 2017 should be crafting an API design guide so you can get to work on guides for the other areas of your lifecycle, thinking through and standardizing your approach, and making it known to every person involved–ideally, you are also being very public about all of this, and sharing your work with me and Arnaud, so we can get the word out about the good stuff you are up to! ;-)


Considering Using HTTP Prefer Header Instead Of Field Filtering For This API

I am working my way through a variety of API design considerations for the Human Services Data API (HSDA)that I’m working on with Open Referral. I was working through my thoughts on how I wanted to approach the filtering of the underlying data schema of the API, and Shelby Switzer (@switzerly) suggested I follow Irakli Nadareishvili’s advice and consider using RFC 7240 -the Prefer Header for HTTP, instead of some of the commonly seen approaches to filtering which fields are returned in an API response.

I find this approach to be of interest for this Human Services Data API implementation because I want to lean on API design, over providing parameters for consumers to dial in the query they are looking for. While I’m not opposed to going down the route of providing a more parameter based approach to defining API responses, in the beginning I want to carefully craft endpoints for specific use cases, and I think the usage of the HTTP Prefer Header helps extend this to the schema, allowing me to craft simple, full, or specialized representations of the schema for a variety of potential use cases. (ie. mobile, voice, bot)

It adds a new dimension to API design for me. Since I’ve been using OpenAPI I’ve gotten better at considering the schema alongside the surface area of the APIs I design, showing how it is used in the request and response structure of my APIs. I like the idea of providing tailored schema in responses over allowing consumers to dynamically filter the schema that is returned using request parameters. At some point, I can see embracing a GraphQL approach to this, but I don’t think that human service data stewards will always know what they want, and we need to invest in a thoughtful set design patterns that reflect exactly the schema they will need.

Early on in this effort, I like allowing API consumers to request minimal, standard or full schema for human service organizations, locations, and services, using the Prefer header, over adding another set of parameters that filter the fields–it reduces the cognitive load for them in the beginning. Before I introduce any more parameters to the surface area, I want to better understand some of the other aspects of taxonomy and metadata proposed as part of HSDS. At this point, I’m just learning about the Prefer header, and suggesting it as a possible solution for allowing human services API consumers to have more control over the schema that is returned to them, without too much overhead.


Some Thoughts On OpenAPI Not Being The Solution

I get regular waves of folks who chime in anytime I push on one of the hot-button topics on my site like hypermedia and OpenAPI. I have a couple of messages in my inbox regarding some recent stories I’ve done about OpenAPI recently, and how it isn’t sustainable, and we should be putting hypermedia practices to work. I’m still working on my responses, but I wanted to think through some of my thoughts here on the blog before I respond–I like to simmer on these things, releasing the emotional exhaust before I respond.

When it comes to the arguments from the hypermedia folks, the short answer is that I agree. I think many of the APIs I’m seeing designed using OpenAPI would benefit from some hypermedia patterns. However, there is such a big gap between where people are, and where we need to be for hypermedia to become the default, and getting people there is easier said than done. I view OpenAPI as a scaffolding or bridge to transport API designers, developers, and architects at scale from where we are, to where we need to be–at scale.

I wish I could snap my fingers and everyone understood how the web works and understood the pros and cons of each of the leading hypermedia types. Many developers do not even understand how the web works. Hell, I’m still learning new things every day, and I’ve been doing this full time for seven years. Most developers still do not even properly include and use HTTP status codes in their simple API designs, let alone understand the intricate relationship possibilities between their resources, and the clients that will be consuming them. Think about it, as developer, I don’t even have time, budget or care to articulate the details of why a response failed, and you expect that I have the time, budget, are care about link relations, and the evolution of the clients build on top of my APIs? Really?

I get it. You want everyone to see the world like you do. You are seeing us headed down a bad road, and want to do something about it. So do I. I’m doing something about it full time, telling stories about hypermedia APIs that exist out there, and even crafting my own hypermedia implementations, and telling the story around them. What are you doing to help equip folks, and educate them about best practices? I think once you hit the road doing this type of storytelling in a sustained way, you will see things differently, and begin to see how much investment we need in basic web literacy–something the OpenAPI spec is helping break down for folks, and providing them with a bridge to incrementally get from where they are at, to where they need to be.

Folks need to learn about consistent design patterns for their requests and responses. Think about getting their schema house in order. Think through content negotiation in a consistent way. Be able to see plainly that they only use three HTTP status codes 200, 404, and 500. OpenAPI provides a scaffolding for API developers to begin thinking about design, learn how the web works, and begin to share and communicate around what they’ve learned using a common language. It also allows them to learn from other API designers who are further along in their journey or just have had success with a single API pattern.

For you (the hypermedia guru), OpenAPI is redundant, meaningless, and unnecessary. For many others, it provides them with a healthy blueprint to follow and allows you to be spoon fed web literacy, and good API design practices in the increments your daily job, and current budget allows. Few API practitioners have the luxury of immersing them in deep thought about the architectural styles and the design of network-based software architectures or wading through W3C standards. They just need to get their job done, and the API deployed, with very little time for much else.

It is up to us leaders in the space to help provide them with the knowledge they’ll need. Not just in book format. Not everyone learns this way. We need to also point out the existing healthy patterns in use already. We need to invest in more blueprints, prototypes, and working examples of good API design. I think my default response for folks who tell me that OpenAPI isn’t a solution will be to ask them to send me a link to all the working examples and stories of the future they envision. I think until you’ve paid your dues in this area, you won’t see how hard it is to educate the masses and actually get folks headed in the right direction at scale.

I often get frustrated with the speed at which things move when I’m purely looking at things from what I want and what I know and understand. However, when I step back and think about what it will truly take to get the masses of developers and business users on-boarded with the API economy–the OpenAPI specification makes a lot more sense as a scaffolding for helping us get where we need. Oh, and also I watch Darrel Miller (@darrel_miller) push on the specification on a daily basis, and I know things are going to be ok.


Keen IO Pushing Forward The Data Schema Conversation

I wrote earlier this year that I would like us all to focus more on our schema and definitions of our data we use across API operations. Since then I’ve been keeping an eye out for any other interesting signs in this area like Postman with their data editor, and now I’ve come across the Streams Manager for inspecting the data schema of your event collections in Keen IO..

With Streams Manager you can:

  • Inspect and review the data schema for each of your event collections
  • Review the last 10 events for each of your event collections
  • Delete event collections that are no longer needed
  • Inspect the trends across your combined data streams over the last 30-day period

Keen IO provides us with an interesting approach to getting in tune with the schema across your event collections. I’d like to see more of this across the API lifecycle. I understand that companies like Runscope, Stoplight, Postman, and others already let us peek inside of each API call, which includes a look at the schema in play. This is good, but I’d like to see more schema management solutions at this layer helping API providers from design to deprecation.

In 2017 we all have an insane amount of bits and bytes flowing around us in our daily business operations. APIs are only enabling this to grow, opening up access to our bits to our partners and on the open web. We need more solutions like Keen’s Stream Manager, but for every layer of the API stack, allowing us to get our schema house in order, and make sense of the growing data bits we are producing, managing, and sharing.


A Working Example Of OpenAPI Version 3.0 To Learn From

I learn almost everything I know by reverse engineering what I come across doing my monitoring of the API space. I feel it is important for leaders in the API space to share a significant portion of our work publicly, and tell the story behind our work so that others can learn from us. Whether folks realize it or not, this is why much of the wider API community works as it does, and has accumulated much of the forward motion we all enjoy today.

I have been getting a lot of questions lately regarding tooling for version 3.0 of the OpenAPI specification. I’m working to evolve my OpenAPI toolbox, and populate with any services or tools I come across that support version 3.0. I have also been getting requests from folks about if I know where there are any working examples of OpenAPI definitions in the version 3.0 format. So I reached out to my friend Mike Ralphson (@PermittedSoc), who is doing interesting work when it comes to OpenAPI and GraphQL, and he responded with a working example for us of moving from version 2.0 to 3.0 of the OpenAPI spec.

He took the version 2.0 from the Authentiq Connect API:

Then he converted it to version 3.0:

Mike accomplished all of this with his OpenAPI 2.0 to 3.0 converter and validator that he has published to Github. His Github organization is always full of interesting work, I recommend staying in tune with whatever he is committing.

Thanks for sharing Mike! Hopefully, it provides a reference for folks seeking a working example of OpenAPI 3.0 out in the wild. I’ll be keeping an eye out for additional version 3.0 OpenAPI examples, as well as any other tooling like swagger2openapi that I can add to the toolbox.


Box Goes All In On OpenAPI

Box has gone all in on OpenAPI. They have published an OpenAPI for their document and storage API on Github, where it can be used in a variety of tools and services, as well as be maintained as part of the Box platform operations. Adding to the number of high-profile APIs managing their OpenAPI definitions on Github, like Box, and the NY Times.

As part of their OpenaPI release, Box published a blog post that touches on all the major benefits of having an OpenAPI, like forking on Github for integration into your workflow, generating documentation and visualizations, code, mock APIs, and even monitoring and testing using Runscope. It’s good to see a major API provider drinking the OpenAPI Kool-Aid, and working to reduce friction for their developers.

I would love to not be in the business of crafting complete OpenAPIs for API providers. I would like every single API provider to be maintaining their own OpenAPI on Github like Box and [NY Times(http://apievangelist.com/2017/03/01/new-york-times-manages-their-openapi-using-github/) does. Then I (we) could spend time indexing, curating, and developing interesting tooling and visualizations to help us tell stories around APIs, helping developers and business owners understand what is possible with the growing number of APIs available today.


Key Factors Determining Who Succeeds In The API and ML Marketplace Game

I was having a discussion with an investor today about the potential of algorithmic-centered API marketplaces. I’m not talking about API marketplaces like Mashape, I’m more talking about ML API marketplaces like Algorithmia. This conversation spans multiple areas of my API lifecycle research, so I wanted to explore my thoughts on the subject some more.

I really do not get excited about API marketplaces when you think just about API discovery–how do I find an API? We need solutions in this area, but I feel good implementations will immediately move from useful to commodity, with companies like Amazon already pushing this towards a reality.

There are a handful of key factors for determining who ultimately wins the API Machine Learning (ML) marketplace game:

  • Always Modular - Everything has to be decoupled and deliver micro value. Vendors will be tempted to build in dependency and emphasize relationships and partnerships, but the smaller and more modular will always win out.
  • Easy Multi-Cloud - Whatever is available in a marketplace has to be available on all major platforms. Even if the marketplace is AWS, each unit of compute has to be transferrable to Google or Azure cloud without ANY friction.
  • Enterprise Ready - The biggest failure of API marketplaces has always been being public. On-premise and private cloud API ML marketplaces will always be more successful that their public counterparts. The marketplace that caters to the enterprise will do well.
  • Financial Engine - The key to markets are their financial engines. This is one area AWS is way ahead of the game, with their approach to monetizing digital bits, and their sophisticated market creating pricing calculators for estimating and predicting costs gives them a significant advantage. Whichever marketplaces allows for innovation at the financial engine level will win.
  • Definition Driven - Marketplaces of the future will have to be definition driven. Everything has to have a YAML or JSON definition, from the API interface, and schema defining inputs and outputs, to the pricing, licensing, TOS, and SLA. The technology, business, and politics of the marketplace needs to be defined in a machine-readable way that can be measured, exchanged, and syndicated as needed.

Google has inroads into this realm with their GSuite Marketplace, and Play Marketplaces, but it feels more fragmented than Azure and AWS approaches. None of them are as far along as Algorithmia when it comes to specifically ML focused APIs. In coming months I will invest more time into mapping out what is available via marketplaces, trying to better understand their contents–whether application, SaaS, and data, content, or algorithmic API.

I feel like many marketplace conversations often get lost in the discovery layer. In my opinion, there are many other contributing factors beyond just finding things. I talked about the retail and wholesale economics of Algorithmia’s approach back in January, and I continue to think the economic engine will be one of the biggest factors in any API ML marketplace success–how it allows marketplace vendors to understand, experiment, and scale the revenue part of things without giving up to big of a slice of the pie.

Beyond revenue, the modularity and portability will be equally important as the financial engine, providing vital relief valves for some of the classic silo and walled garden effects we’ve seen the impact the success of previous marketplace efforts. I’ll keep studying the approach of smaller providers like Algorithmia, as well as those of the cloud giants, and see where all of this goes. It is natural to default to AWS lead when it comes to the cloud, but I’m continually impressed with what I’m seeing out of Azure, as well as feel that Google has a significant advantage when it comes to TensorFlow, as well as their overall public API experience–we will see.


Simple APIs With Jekyll And Github With Data Managed Via Google Spreadsheets

I'm always looking for simpler, and cheaper ways of doing APIs that can help anyone easily manage data while making it available in both a human and machine readable way--preferably something developers and non-developers both will find useful. I've pushed forward my use of Github when it comes to managing simple datasets, and have a new approach I want to share, and potentially use across other projects.

You can find a working example of this in action with my OpenAPI Toolbox, where I'm looking to manage and share a listing of tooling that is built on top of the OpenAPI specification. Like the rest of my API research, I am looking manage the data in a simple and cheap way that I can offload the storage, compute, and bandwidth to other providers, preferably ones that don't cost me a dime. While not a solution that would work in every API scenario, I am pretty happy with the formula I've come up with for my OpenAPI Toolbox.

Data Storage and Management In Google Sheets
The data used in the OpenAPI Toolbox comes from a public Google Sheet. I manage all the tools in the toolbox via this spreadsheet, tracking title, description, URL, image, organization, types, tags, and license using the spreadsheet. I have two separate worksheets, one of which tracks details on the organizations, and the other keeping track of each individual tool in the toolbox. This allows for the data to be managed by anyone I give access to the sheet using Google Docs, offloading storage and data management to Google. Sure, it has its limitations, but for simple datasets, it works better than a database in my opinion.

Website and Basic API Hosting Using Github
First, and foremost the data in the OpenAPI Toolbox is meant to be accessible by any human on the web. Github, using their Github Pages solution, combined with the static website tool Jekyll, provides a rich environment for managing this data-driven toolbox. Jekyll provides the ability to store YAML data in its _data folder, which I can then use across static HTML pages which display the data using Liquid syntax. This approach to managing data allows for easy publishing of static representations in HTML, JSON, and YAML, making the data easily consumable by humans and machines, in an environment that is version controlled, forkable, and free for publicly available projects.

JavaScript Spreadsheet Sync To YAML Data Store
To keep the data in the Google Spreadsheet in sync with the YAML data store in the Github hosted repository I use a simple JavaScript driven page on the website. To make it work you have to provide a valid Github OAuth token to be passed along as query string like this http://openapi.toolbox.apievangelist.com/pull-spreadsheet/?token=[github token]. The token can be acquired by doing the usual OAuth dance with Github or using the Github account of any user where you can issue personal tokens. If the user is a valid contributor on the repository, the JavaScript will pull a recent copy of the data in the Google Spreadsheet, and publish as YAML in the _data folder for the toolbox repository successfully--otherwise, it just throws an error.

HTML Toolbox For Humans To Browse The Toolbox
Jekyll provides a static website that acts as the public face for the OpenAPI Toolbox. The home page provides icon links to each of the types of tools I have indexed, as well as to specific tags I've selected, such as the programming language of each tool. Each page of the website is an HTML page that uses Liquid to display data stored in the central YAML store. Liquid handles the filtering of data by type, tags, or any other criteria I choose. Soon I will be adding a search, and other ways to browse the data in the toolbox as the data store grows, and I obtain more data points to slice and dice things on. 

JSON API To Put To Use Across Other Applications
To provide the API-esque functionality I also use Liquid to display data from the YAML data store, but instead of publishing as HTML, I publish as JSON, essentially providing a static API facade. The primary objective of this type of implementation is to allow for GET requests on a variety of machine-readable paths for the toolbox. I published a full JSON listing of the entire toolbox, as well as more precise paths for getting at types of tools, and specific programming language tools. Similar to the human side of the toolbox, I will be adding more paths as more data points become available in the OpenAPI toolbox data store.

Documentation Using Liquid and OpenAPI Definition
Rather than just making the data available via JSON files, I wanted to also provide simple API documentation demonstrating what was possible with the data stored in the toolbox. I crafted an OpenAPI for the OpenAPI Toolbox API, providing a machine readable definition of all the paths available. Again, using Liquid I generate simple API documentation and schema, that actually allows you to make calls against the API, using a simple interactive JavaScript interface. While the OpenAPI Toolbox is technically static, using Liquid and OpenAPI I was able to mimic much of the functionality developers are used to when it comes to API integration.

Project Support and Road Map Using Github Issues
As with all of my projects I am using the underlying issue management system to help me manage support and the roadmap for the project. Anyone can submit an issue regarding a tool they'd like to see in the toolbox, regarding API integration, or possibly new APIs they would like to see published. I can use the Github issue management to handle general support requests, and communication around the project, as well as incrementally manage the data, schema, website, and API for the toolbox. 

Indexed In Machine Readable Way With APIs.json
The entire project is indexed using APIs.json, providing metadata for the project as well as other indexes for the API, support, and other aspects of operating the project. APIs.json is meant to provide a machine readable index for not just the API, which is already defined using OpenAPI, but for the rest of the project, including documentation and support, and eventually a road map, blog, and other supporting elements. Using the APIs.json index, other systems can easily discover the API, and programmatically access the data via the APIs, or even access the repository for the spreadsheet via the Github API, or the Google Sheet via its API--all the information is available in the APIs.json for use.

A Free Forkable Way To Manage Simple Data And APIs
This approach to doing APIs won't' be something you will want to do for every API implementation, but for simple data-driven projects like the OpenAPI Toolbox, it works great. Google Sheets and Github are both free, so I am offloading the storage, hosting, and bandwidth to another provider, while I am managing things in a way that any tech-savvy user could engage with. Anyone could manage entries in the toolbox using the Google Sheet and even engage with humans, and other applications via the published project toolbox.

I am going to continue evolving this approach to fit some of my other data-driven projects. I really like having all my projects self-contained as individual repositories, and the public side of things running using Jekyll--the entire API Evangelist network runs this way. I also like having the data managed in individual Google Sheets like this. it gives me simple data stores that I can easily manage with the help of other data stewards. Each of the resulting projects exists as a static representation of each data set--in this case an OpenAPI toolbox. I have many other toolboxes, toolkits, curriculum, and API research areas that are data driven, and will benefit from this approach.

What really makes me smile about this is that each project has an API representation of its core. Sure, I don't have POST, PUT, and DELETE capabilities for these APIs, or even advanced search capabilities, but for projects that are heavily read only--this works just fine. If you think about it though, I can easily access the data for reading and writing using the Google Sheets or Github APIs, depending on which layer I want to get access at. Really I am just looking to allow for easy management of data using Google Sheets, and simple publishing as YAML, JSON, and HTML, so that humans can browse, as well as put to use in other applications.


Adding An Extensions Category To The OpenAPI Toolbox

I added another type of tool to my OpenAPI Toolbox, this time it is extensions. They used to be called Swagger vendor extensions, and now they are simply called OpenAPI extensions, which allow any implementor to extend the schema outside the current version of the API specification. All you do to add an OpenAPI extension is prepend x- to any value that you wish to include in your OpenAPI, and the validator will overlook it as part of the specification.

I have a whole list of vendor extensions I'd like to add, but I've started with a handful from Microsoft Flow, and my friends over at APIMATIC. Two great examples of how OpenAPI extensions can be used in the API lifecycle. In this case, one is for integration platform as a service (iPaaS), and the other is SDK generation and continuous integration. Both vendors needed to extend the specification to meet a specific need, so they just extended it as required--you can find the extensions in the new section of the toolbox.

My goal in adding the section to the OpenAPI toolbox is to highlight how people are evolving the specification outside the core working group. While some of the extensions are pretty unique, some of them have a potential common purpose. I will be adding some discovery focused extensions next week from the OpenAPI directory APIs.guru, which I will be adopting and using in my own definitions to help me articulate the provenance of any OpenAPI definition in my catalog(s). Plus, I find it to be a learning experience to see how different vendors are putting them to work. 

If you know of any OpenAPI extensions that are not in the toolbox currently feel free to submit an issue on the Github repository for the project. I'd like to evolve the collection to be a comprehensive look at how OpenAPI extensions are being used across the sector, from a diverse number of providers. I'm going to be teaching my own OpenAPI crawler to identify extensions within any OpenAPI it comes across, and automatically submit an issue on the toolbox, rapidly expanding the discovery of how they are used across a variety of implementations in coming months.


The List Of API Signals I Track On In My API Stack Research

I keep an eye on several thousand companies as part of my research into the API space and publish over a thousand of these profiles in my API Stack project. Across the over 1,100 companies, organizations, institutions, and government agencies I'm regularly running into a growing number of signals that tune me into what is going on with each API provider, or service provider. 

Here are the almost 100 types of signals I am tuning into as I keep an eye on the world of APIs, each contributing to my unique awareness of what is going on with everything API.

  • Account Settings (x-account-settings) - Does an API provider allow me to manage the settings for my account?
  • Android SDK (x-android-sdk) - Is there an Android SDK present?
  • Angular (x-angularjs) - Is there an Angular SDK present?
  • API Explorer (x-api-explorer) - Does a provider have an interactive API explorer?
  • Application Gallery (x-application-gallery) - Is there a gallery of applications build on an API available?
  • Application Manager (x-application-manager) - Does the platform allow me to management my APIs?
  • Authentication Overview (x-authentication-overview) - Is there a page dedicated to educating users about authentication?
  • Base URL for API (x-base-url-for-api) - What is the base URL(s) for the API?
  • Base URL for Portal (x-base-url-for-portal) - What is the base URL for the developer portal?
  • Best Practices (x-best-practices) - Is there a page outlining best practices for integrating with an API?
  • Billing history (x-billing-history) - As a developer, can I get at the billing history for my API consumption?
  • Blog (x-blog) - Does the API have a blog, either at the company level, but preferably at the API and developer level as well?
  • Blog RSS Feed (x-blog-rss-feed) - Is there an RSS feed for the blog?
  • Branding page (x-branding-page) - Is there a dedicated branding page as part of API operations?
  • Buttons (x-buttons) - Are there any embeddable buttons available as part of API operations.
  • C# SDK (x-c-sharp) - Is there a C# SDK present?
  • Case Studies (x-case-studies) - Are there case studies available, showcasing implementations on top of an API?
  • Change Log (x-change-log) - Does a platform provide a change log?
  • Chrome Extension (x-chrome-extension) - Does a platform offer up open-source or white label chrome extensions?
  • Code builder (x-code-builder) - Is there some sort of code generator or builder as part of platform operations?
  • Code page (x-code-page) - Is there a dedicated code page for all the samples, libraries, and SDKs?
  • Command Line Interface (x-command-line-interface) - Is there a command line interface (CLI) alongside the API?
  • Community Supported Libraries (x-community-supported-libraries) - Is there a page or section dedicated to code that is developed by the API and developer community?
  • Compliance (x-compliance) - Is there a section dedicated to industry compliance?
  • Contact form (x-contact-form) - Is there a contact form for getting in touch?
  • Crunchbase (x-crunchbase) - Is there a Crunchbase profile for an API or its company?
  • Dedicated plans pricing page (x-dedicated-plans--pricing-page)
  • Deprecation policy (x-deprecation-policy) - Is there a page dedicated to deprecation of APIs?
  • Developer Showcase (x--developer-showcase) - Is there a page that showcases API developers?
  • Documentation (x-documentation) - Where is the documentation for an API?
  • Drupal (x-drupal) - Is there Drupal code, SDK, or modules available for an API?
  • Email (x-email) - Is an email address available for a platform?
  • Embeddable page (x-embeddable-page) - Is there a page of embeddable tools available for a platform?
  • Error response codes (x-error-response-codes) - Is there a listing or page dedicated to API error responses?
  • Events (x-events) - Is there a calendar of events related to platform operations?
  • Facebook (x-facebook) - Is there a Facebook page available for an API?
  • Faq (x-faq) - Is there an FAQ section available for the platform?
  • Forum (x-forum) - Does a provider have a forum for support and asynchronous conversations?
  • Forum rss (x-forum-rss) - If there is a forum, does it have an RSS feed?
  • Getting started (x-getting-started) - Is there a getting started page for an API?
  • Github (x-github) - Does a provider have a Github account for the API or company?
  • Glossary (x-glossary) - Is there a glossary of terms available for a platform?
  • Heroku (x-heroku) - Are there Heroku SDKs, or deployment solutions?
  • How-To Guides (x-howto-guides) - Does a provider offer how-to guides as part of operations?
  • Interactive documentation (x-interactive-documentation) - Is there interactive documentation available as part of operatoins?
  • IoS SDK (x-ios-sdk) - Is there an IoS SDK for Objective-C or Swift?
  • Issues (x-issues) - Is there an issue management page or repo for the platform?
  • Java SDK (x-java) - Is there a Java SDK for the platform?
  • JavaScript API (x-javascript-api) - Is there a JavaScript SDK available for a platform?
  • Joomla (x-joomla) - Is there Joomla plug for the platform?
  • Knowledgebase (x-knowledgebase) - Is there a knowledgebase for the platform?
  • Labs (x-labs) - Is there a labs environment for the API platform?
  • Licensing (x-licensing) - Is there licensing for the API, schema, and code involved?
  • Message Center (x-message-center) - Is there a messaging center available for developers?
  • Mobile Overview (x-mobile-overview) - Is there a section or page dedicated to mobile applications?
  • Node.js (x-nodejs) - Is there a Node.js SDK available for the API?
  • Oauth Scopes (x-oauth-scopes) - Does a provider offer details on the available OAuth scopes?
  • Openapi spec (x-openapi-spec) - Is there an OpenAPI available for the API?
  • Overview (x-overview) - Does a platform have a simple, concise description of what they do?
  • Paid support plans (x-paid-support-plans) - Are there paid support plans available for a platform?
  • Postman Collections (x-postman) - Are there any Postman Collections available?
  • Partner (x-partner) - Is there a partner program available as part of API operations?
  • Phone (x-phone) - Does a provider publish a phone number?
  • PHP SDK (x-php) - Is there a PHP SDK available for an API?
  • Privacy Policy (x-privacy-policy-page) - Does a platform have a privacy policy?
  • PubSub (x-pubsubhubbub) - Does a platform provide a PubSub feed?
  • Python SDK (x-python) - Is there a Python SDK for an API?
  • Rate Limiting (x-rate-limiting) - Does a platform provide information on API rate limiting?
  • Real Time Solutions (x-real-time-page) - Are there real-time solutions available as part of the platform?
  • Road Map (x-road-map) - Does a provider share their roadmap publicly?
  • Ruby SDK (x-ruby) - Is there a Ruby SDK available for the API?
  • Sandbox (x-sandbox) - Is there a sandbox for the platform?
  • Security (x-security) - Does a platform provide an overview of security practices?
  • Self-Service registration (x-self-service-registration) - Does a platform allow for self-service registration?
  • Service Level Agreement (x-service-level-agreement) - Is an SLA available as part of platform integration?
  • Slideshare (x-slideshare) - Does a provider publish talks on Slideshare?
  • Stack Overflow (x-stack-overflow) - Does a provider actively use Stack Overflow as part of platform operations?
  • Starter Projects (x-starter-projects) - Are there start projects available as part of platform operations?
  • Status Dashboard (x-status-dashboard) - Is there a status dashboard available as part of API operations.
  • Status History (x-status-history) - Can you get at the history involved with API operations?
  • Status RSS (x-status-rss) - Is there an RSS feed available as part of the platform status dashboard?
  • Support Page (x-support-overview-page) - Is there a page or section dedicated to support?
  • Terms of Service (x-terms-of-service-page) - Is there a terms of service page?
  • Ticket System (x-ticket-system) - Does a platform offer a ticketing system for support?
  • Tour (x-tour) - Is a tour available to walk a developer through platforms operations?
  • Trademarks (x-trademarks) - Is there details about trademarks, and how to use them?
  • Twitter (x-twitter) - Does a platform have a Twitter account dedicated to the API or even company?
  • Videos (x-videos) - Is there a page, YouTube, or other account dedicated to videos about the API?
  • Webhooks (x-webhook) - Are there webhooks available for an API?
  • Webinars (x-webinars) - Does an API conduct webinars to support operations?
  • White papers (x-white-papers) - Does a platform provide white papers as part of operations?
  • Widgets (x-widgets) - Are there widgets available for use as part of integration?
  • Wordpress (x-wordpress) - Are there WordPress plugins or code available?

There are hundreds of other building blocks I track on as part of API operations, but this list represents the most common, that often have dedicated URLs available for exploring, and have the most significant impact on API integrations. You'll notice there is an x- representation for each one, which I use as part of APIs.json indexes for all the APIs I track on. Some of these signal types are machine readable like OpenAPIs or a Blog RSS, with others machine readable because there is another API behind, like Twitter or Github, but most of them are just static pages, where a human (me) can visit and stay in tune with signals.

I have two primary objectives with this work: 1) identify the important signals, that impact integration, and will keep me and my readers in tune with what is going on, and 2) identify the common channels, and help move the more important ones to be machine-readable, allowing us to scale the monitoring of important signals like pricing and terms of service. My API Stack research provides me wit a nice listing of APIs, as well as more individualized stacks like Microsoft, Google, Microsoft, and Facebook, or even industry stacks like SMS, Email, and News. It also provides me with a wealth of signals we can tune into better understand the scope and health of the API sector, and any individual business vertical that is being touched by APIs.


If you think there is a link I should have listed here feel free to tweet it at me, or submit as a Github issue. Even though I do this full time, I'm still a one person show, and I miss quite a bit, and depend on my network to help me know what is going on.